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INNOVATION IN RURAL BANKING ABSTRACT 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 This study is the innovation in the farm banking. 聽 This paper present the bank sector, new mantras, new innovations, MIS promote works, poverty alleviation of distant bank. 聽 Rural banking in India started since the establishment of banking area in India. Rural Banks in those days mainly focused upon the actual agro sector. Today, commercial banks and Local Rural Banks in Asia are penetrating every corner for the country are extending a helping submit the growth process in the rural sector in the country. INTRODUCTION 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Rural banks and loans in India started since the establishment of banking area in India. Rural Banks in those days mainly focused upon the actual agro sector. Today, commercial banks and Local rural banks in Asia are penetrating every corner for the country are extending a helping submit the growth process in the rural sector in the country. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In order so that you can stimulate the development of rural banking and also to give sustained support to development of co-operative banks and also other co-operative institution by providing remittances along with other facilities, the all India Farm credit survey committee recommended setting up of a public sector bank which may be responsive to the needs of the Rural sector more often than not and co-operative institutions accumulate. The overwhelming majority of poor people in India are concentrated in rural area of the estimated 260 million Indians (or 26%) for the population who live on poverty, same 193 million or 745) live in rural area. The catalytic role played by credit for quickly moving the economic development is actually well recognized all over the world. 聽 Since the start of central economic thinking about in 1950, the government identified the credit needs for the rural sector and framed polices conducive for that flow of institutional credit rating. 聽 Finance is about the most fundamental inputs for finance activity. Despite having a network of rural mortgage lender branches in India, Which implemented Specific poverty relief programmer that sought creating of self-employment opportunities throughout bank credit, a many unprivileged poor masses still continued to settle outside from the arena of formal banking method. BANKING SECTOR IN DISTANT AREA: 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In May 1969, total number involving banks branches in The indian subcontinent were 89, out that 73 were scheduled commercial banks and 16 ended up being non-scheduled commercial banks amplified to 226, out that 148 were scheduled commercial banks, 74 Regional distant banks and 5 non-scheduled professional banks in June 1980. 聽 In 1998, the branches additional in creased to 340, out of which state bank and your subsidiaries are 8 within number 19 nationalized lenders, 196 Regional Rural Banking institutions 86 scheduled Commercial Banking institutions, 23 Private Banks and additionally 1 Non-scheduled commercial banks. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Banks have woken up to the potential in all the rural sector. Specialised and innovative schemes to improve rural penetration are the brand new mantra. Rural credit bank cards and ATMs, a franchisee mobile phone network, supply chain financing just for agriculture; investments in rural system and cross-selling of products are only some of the schemes directed at the particular village folk. Building a specialised cadre for rural banking and improving awareness can help you reduce default and generate these schemes effective. THE NEW MANTRA JUST FOR BANKS 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Union Plan for 2006-07 highlighted a number of schemes for rural Of india including creating opportunities for rural employment along with National Rural Health Goal. It has also asked banks to provide farm credit at 7 % to bring more farmers under the organised credit net. The finance ministry features proposed to ask banks to increase the level of farm credit to Rs 1, 75, 000 crore in 2006-07, an increase of about Rs 33, 500 crore. In add-on, banks are being asked to create 50 lakh more farmers to the banking fold. The capability, no doubt, is significant. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 However, the condition is rural penetration. A recent national practice survey has found that 41 per cent of the country's adult population does not have access to formal banking facilities. This leaves a huge population outside the ambit from the formal financial structure. Banks are trying to remedy this problem right now. Most have taken to rural expansion inside a big way. 聽Take the country鈥檚 largest bank, State Bank of India for instance. Its rural branch mobile phone network has touched a stupendous 6, 600 with 972 specialised companies, which have been build in different parts of the country exclusively for the growth of agriculture through credit rating deployment. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 In add-on, rural agricultural business devices, education programmes for city farmers and kisan credit cards. It is no wonder of the fact that bank is a director in agricultural finance in the country with a portfolio in Rs. 18, 000 crore in advances to around 50 lakh farmers. 聽The bank has introduced innovative and specialized mango and litchi charge cards for orchard owners through Uttaranchal. 聽Its most recent endeavor in that direction is a tie-up with the help of National Agricultural Cooperative Promotional Federation (NAFED) for cooperation straight to finance farmers for production and cultivation of numerous crops like soyabean, paddy, jute and potato. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Not very far behind is ICICI Standard bank, the country鈥檚 second biggest bank. It has decided i would adopt an unconventional solution to beef up its appeal in rural India. Instead of opening branches, the largest private bank has decided i would adopt the franchisee unit. Besides credit franchisees, the bank's rural delivery channels may include branches in major lawn care markets, rural Internet kiosks as well as micro-finance institution partnerships, targeting specific segments of the rural population. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The bank had disbursed Rs some, 500 crore towards non-urban sector financing was anticipating good rural credit off take in the current year. It has also rolled out `Ashan' ATMs for that urban and semi-urban sells in India. Clearly, the bank is getting the high-tech route to reach out to the rural population. Canara Bank on the other hand has launched a much more grassroots-level plan. It plans on a programme for "100 % financial inclusion" in 1400 villages throughout India, which is required to bring 7 lakh families to the bank鈥檚 net. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Under the programme, every adult member of a rural household on the selected villages would turn out to be encouraged to open 'No Frills' records with minimum entry-level thank you's. An artisans credit card will assist to village artisans like blacksmiths, carpenters, leather workers, people engaged within servicing of agricultural tools and household equipment. 聽Meanwhile, several banks have been pursuing corporate-linked advances where finance might provided against procurement responsibilities. Such supply-chain management is normally had now been placed to rural lending as well. Farmer loan portfolios really are increasingly getting skewed towards investment credit rather than crop loans. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Investment credit could involve credit for the acquisition of farm equipment like tractors as well farm equipment. Banks are also involved in commodity financing where advances are provided to farmers against its final produce. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Apart from the rising credit needs, banks can generate substantial amount of fee-based volumes from typically the rural segment. The lawn sector offers cross-sell chances for products like target insurance. Banks are also taking care of financing of rural structure. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 An improved distant branch network, building the banking cadre specialised in rural banking, more flexible schemes many importantly improving awareness among farmers about the advantages of bank credit are discussing banks. The rural effort, though relatively new, has tremendous potential. The upcoming years will show the extent of its being successful. NEW INNOVATION OF COUNTRYSIDE BANKING 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Traditional bank architecture is based on bank branches. The branches ensure the physical security of your savings. You go presently there to deposit and withdraw money, negotiate loans, and engage in other financial transactions. In the past two decades, the banks and loans architecture has changed. The automated teller machine (ATM) has been a big innovation. Credit and additionally debit cards have made new financial spaces. Some banks have experimented with rural agents. Yet the branch has remained the bedrock from the banking system. You need a bank account in a branch could use one that use an ATM or credit card which may be about to change. It鈥檚 early days still, but technocrats now view cellphones as the new architecture of devoted banks. This has the potential to create bank branches obsolete, or at least non-essential. Cellphone banking appears especially relevant for Indian, since it can penetrate the countryside cheaply plus effectively. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The country over, cellphones are spreading at a phenomenal rate. In numerous developing countries, more most people have cellphones than bank accounts. In India, new cellphone connections are growing at the rate of six million a calendar month, a rate of customer expansion that no bank can have dreamed. 聽Till now, rural cellphone towers did not exist to permit services within the deep countryside. But those towers are now coming up rapidly, and cellphone companies expect to get hundreds of millions of rural customers this five years. For the first time in history, villagers will have instant connectivity. E-Account 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The customer can deposit cash throughout the e-account or withdraw the software, using the retail providers of Globe Telecom, who are spread across the country. Customers can use G-cash to shell out bills, repay loans, or purchase goods at outlets (it鈥檚 effectively a debit card). In the Philippines, 1. 3 million people now have e-accounts with Global Telecom. In Kenya, a similar service is now being offered by Safaricom, a Vodafone affiliate and therefore the leading mobile operator in the country. Safaricom has partnered all the Commercial Bank of Africa and a local microfinance institution. 聽In South Africa, a technology organization, WIZZIT, has become a division in the South African Bank of Athens to meet the central bank鈥檚 regulatory concerns. WIZZIT offers gambling services 鈥? deposit, withdrawal, payments, and airtime purchase 鈥? through a great diversity of access points including cell phones, ATMs post offices as well as bank branches. So, it combines branchless and branch-based banks and loans, and its link along with the post office constitutes your public-private partnership. It has reached the indegent that earlier could not have dreamed opening bank accounts. India needs to learn from all all of these models. After the NBFC scandal for the 1990s, and subsequent scandals in many cooperative banks, the RBI is ultra-cautious about new architecture that may be vulnerable to abuse. It has allowed commercial banks to try microfinance institutions (MFIs), NGOs and cooperatives as retail solutions. ICICI and other loan companies use MFIs as list agents for disbursing plus collecting loans. However, this architecture has not so far been helpful for collecting deposits, paying expense, or undertaking other debt services. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Hence the time is ripe for a brand new set of rules that will facilitate cellphone banking to all rural areas. A problem in the past has been that electric power in rural areas could be very intermittent and unreliable. This makes the operation of ATMs a problem. But cellphones need very little electricity, and can be charged through the night in every village using batteries determined by solar energy. Such solar batteries have long been used by ITC through its e-choupals, and ordinarily are not a novelty. 聽Indeed, the e-choupal is eventually threatened with extinction by the rural cellphone. Till at this time, the e-choupal has delivered electronic information in distant areas having no other source of information. But once rural cellphone towers are built, 3G technology will permit every rural cellphone to attach with the internet. This will enable cell-phones to provide all the information that e鈥揷houpals do now. Indeed, to protect the country's future, ITC needs in order to immediately become provider associated with services through cellphones, making them the new architecture of future e-choupals. This will be a first step towards ITC becoming a rural banker too. <! --INFOLINKS_OFF-->

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聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The RBI should probably insist that every provider of virtual banking creates a joint venture by having a commercial bank for rendering such services. This is going to be far simpler than creating a fully new set of procedures for virtual banks. The regulations should liberally provide money transfer by cell. This will reduce the price incurred by poor migrants around sending home remittances, currently done through money order placed. MIS TO PROMOTE RURAL BANKING 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 To reach out to millions of unbanked farm customers, Mumbai based solutions solutions provider Financial Information Network and Operations Ltd. (FINO) will work jointly with Access Development Services (ADS) to build up management information system ( MIS) in the sector. 聽As a answer provider, FINO will implement MIS solution along with its various delivery areas, including mobiles, smart bank cards, micro-deposit machines (MDM's) as well as credit bureaux services to aid Access Microfinance Alliance (AmFA) loved ones to scale up his or her's operations. RURAL BANKING AND LOWER INCOME ALLEVIATION 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Inadequacy for the traditional banking system gave rise towards the need of cooperative financial institutions and regional rural bankers and Regional Rural Loan companies combining resource and competence for the commercial banks with any rural orientation democratic tactic of the cooperatives as well as low cost of store. After tracing the background of Regional Rural Banks of India this current work, based upon case studies from the RRBs, seeks to test how far the objectives RRBs had been achieved. The study involved to the working intensive field investigation into the working of regional rural banks of West Bengal. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The progress of all the Gramin Banks in admire of items if Money, deposits, advances, income, spending, profit or loss part expansion, loaning operations and recovery performance was looked over. The nature of mobilization from rural savings through local Rural Banks and what causes their profits or loss were probed. The study in a nutshell attempts a critical evaluation towards structure and functioning associated with regional rural banks Western Bengal NKS: FUNCTIONING FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF RURAL AREAS 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The area of operation of most the RRBs is tied to a notified area comprising a couple districts in a Express. SBI has 30 Regional Rural Banks in India generally known as RRBs. The rural banks of SBI are get spread around in 13 states stretching out from Kashmir to Karnataka and also Himachal Pradesh to North East. Apart from SBI, you'll find other few banks which functions for that development of the non-urban areas in India. Number of them are as 's coming. Haryana State Cooperative Pinnacle Bank Limited NABARD Sindhanur Downtown Souharda Co-operative Bank U . s . Bank of India Syndicate Lender Co-operative bank CO-OPERATIVE LOAN PROVIDERS AND RURAL CREDIT 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The Co-operative bank carries a history of almost 100 years. The Co-operative banks are a crucial constituent of the Indian Financial system, judging by the role assigned to them, the expectations they are designed to fulfill, their number, and the quantity of offices they operate. Their role in rural financing may be important even today, and their business from the urban areas also has increased phenomenally in recent times mainly due to that sharp increase in the number of primary co-operative banks. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Co-operative Banks in India are registered within the Co-operative Societies Act. Your RBI also regulates this cooperative bank. They are governed through the Banking Regulations Act 1949 in addition to Banking Laws (Co-operative Societies) Work, 1965. Co-operative banks within India finance rural sections under: Framing Cattle Milk Hatchery Very own finance聽 Institutional Arrangements just for Rural Credit (Co-operatives) Short-run Co-operatives Long Term Co-operatives Short term Co-operatives|District Central Co-operative Banks| Status Co-operative Banks|Primary Agriculture Credit rating Co-operative Societies|Branches 聽 聽 Extended Cooperatives|State Agriculture &amp; Countryside Development Banks|Primary Agriculture &amp; Rural Development Banks|Branches Most important Agricultural Credit Societies (PACSs) A great agricultural credit society could be started with 10 or more persons normally belonging towards a village or a small grouping of villages. The value of just about every share is generally nominal in an attempt to enable even the poorest farmer to become a member. The members get unlimited liability, that is each representative is fully responsible for the whole loss of the contemporary culture, in the event with failure. Loans are presented for short periods, normally to the harvest season, for carrying on agricultural operation, and the interest is fixed. There are now over 92, 000 primary agricultural credit societies near your vicinity with a membership about over 100 million. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The key agricultural credit society was expected to attract deposits from among the well 鈥搕o-do members and non-members on the village and thus enhance thrift and self-help. It should give loans and develops to needy members mainly from these deposits. Central Co-operative Banks (CCBs) Typically the central co-operative banks are situated at the district head office or some prominent town of the district. These banks have a very few private individuals moreover who provide both loan and management. The central co-operative banks have three causes of funds, Their own share investment capital and reserves Deposits from the public and Loans on the state co-operative banks 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Their main function could be to lend to primary credit society as well as that, central coopertive banks are actually undertaking normal commercial depositing business also, such as attracting deposits from the public and lending to the particular needy against proper sec. There are now 367 essential co-operative banks. 聽 State Co-operative Banks (SCBs) 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Hawaii Co-operative Banks, now 29 in number, they financial, co-ordinate and control the working in the central Co-operative Banks around each state. They serve because link between the Reserve bank and the general money market within the one side and that central co-operative and primary societies at the other. They obtain their funds mainly from the public by way of build up, loans and advances in the Reserve Bank and perhaps they are own share capital and even reserves. COMMERCIAL BANKS AND OUTLYING CREDIT 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The commercial banks presently provide short term crop loans account for nearly 45 to 47% on the total loans given and disbursed by way of the commercial banks. Term loans for varying periods get for purchasing pump identifies, tractors and other garden machinery, for construction of wells and tube clearly, for development of fruits and garden crops, pertaining to leveling and development for land, for purchase connected with ploughs, animals, etc. professional banks also extend mortgages for allied activities viz., pertaining to dairying, poultry, piggery, bee retaining, fisheries and others. These loans visit 15 to 16%. Commercial Banks and Modest Farmers 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The commercial banks identifying the small farmers through Small Farmers Development Agencies (SFDA) set up in various districts together with group them into different categories for credit support so as for them to become bible cultivators. As regard small cultivators near cities and irrigation facilities, commercial banks can help them to go in for veggie cultivation or combine that with small poultry farming and maintaing of a few milch cattle. IRDP along with commercial banks 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Due to the fact October 1980, the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) may be extended to all the blocks near your vicinity and the commercial banks are generally asked by the federal government of India to financing IRDP. The lead banks ought to prepare banking plans and allocate the responsibility of financing the identified beneficiaries among the participating banks. Commercial banks are actually asked to finance every economically backward people unearthed by government agencies. Application Technology adds cost to rural banking 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 FINO is often a smart card based multi-function application solutions provider that's making value-additions to rural banking In the backdrop of constant innovation from the banking sector vis-a-vis engineering, Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) are trying to find enhanced services over and above the traditional services that are getting offering today. Demand for value further services has propelled the need for MFIs to try advanced technology. The growing realisation within MFIs and their consumers about the numerous ways this can be accomplished have took MFIs raising the electronic bar. CORE BANKING FOR RURAL TRADERS 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 By now, many financial institutions within the rural sector are choosing rudimentary technology systems, which in turn lack efficient MIS canceling, credible transaction trails or maybe alternatively incorporate manual experditions. The high cost from independent technology systems including core banking systems acquire kept MFIs from purchasing them. Inefficient operating modules and even manual field operations work as major entry barriers towards the growth of MFIs in a country like India. The upshot is that the price tag on acquiring and servicing prospects remains high. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Manish Khera, BOSS, FINO (Financial Information System and Operations Ltd) shows, 鈥淚f the organised metropolitan financial sector can somehow hook up to its rural counterpart, it might accelerate the growth from the rural financial sector. 鈥? Thus there was a vacuum, which can be bridged with low cost technology as proposed by FINO. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Ramesh Ramanathan, Chairman Janalakshmi Cultural Service says, 鈥淚n order to attract the huge portion of the populace that isn't served by the financial sector, this technology was needed. Our need for industrial strength technology is as important as that of formal financial institutions, possibly more; we have many customers with large contract volumes, and small ticket sizes. Our audit and control systems should match these volumes, and our transaction costs should be low enough to enable low cost delivery. None of this will be possible without technology. 鈥? /p> 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Khera brings, 鈥淭he idea of biometric shrewd cards was floated soon after an in-depth study by our team about MFIs in The indian subcontinent. The majority of MFI people are illiterate and it might be unfair to give them a password to utilise, so we have introduced something where we take that customer鈥檚 fingerprints and whenever he wants to transact, he need not remember several, his fingers will suffice with the FINO POT (Point in Transaction). 鈥? /p> 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 FINO and IBM are set to get in touch with unbanked micro-entrepreneurs at a grassroots level. The solution for deposit will enable customers about MFIs to participate out there; smart cards will be provided to enable customers to access the particular trading floor without lugging cash. REGIONAL RURAL BANKS AND EVEN RURAL CREDIT 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The actual Narasimham committee on countryside credit recommended the establishment of Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) in the grass that they would be a lot better suited than the private banks or co-operative banks in meeting the wants of rural areas. Accepting the recommendations in the Narasimham committee, the government passed the Regional Country Banks Act, 1976. The principle objective of RRBs would be to provide credit and other facilities particularly towards small and marginal maqui berry farmers, agricultural laborers, artisians along with small entrepreneurs and cultivate agriculture, trade, commerce, industry and also other productive activities in that rural areas. 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The progress of RRBs inside initial stage was fairly rapid. For instance, the Sixth Five-year plan(1980-85) had envisaged the starting of 170 RRBs covering 270 districts through the end of march 1985. The mark was exceeded. There are now 196 RRBs in 23 states on the country with 14, 190 branches. Structure of regional country bank 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The establishment in the Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) had been initiated in 1975 underneath the provisions of the ordinance promulgated at 26. 9. 1975 and thereafter Section 3(1) in the RRB Act, 1976. Your issued capital of RRBs is certainly shared by Central Federal, sponsor bank and the state Government in the the amount of 50%, 35% along with 15% respectively. RRBs established while using explicit objective of: * Bridging the credit ranking gap in rural areas* Look at the outflow of non-urban deposits to urban areas* Lessen regional imbalances and increase rural employment generation CHARACTER OF RBI IN RURAL CREDIT Mainly because it was set up around 1934, RBI has been taking keen curiosity about expanding credit to that rural sector. After NABARD was build as the apex loan company for agriculture and non-urban development, RBI has been taking a number of steps for providing reasonable and adequate credit by means of NABARD. Scheduled commercial banks excluding foreign banks happen to be forced to supplement NABARDs efforts-through the particular stipulation that 40percent associated with net bank credit should visit the priority sector, out of which at least 18 per-cent of net bank credit rating should flow to farming. Besides, it is mandatory of which any shortfall in rewarding the 40 percent targeted or the 18 percent sub-target will have to go to the corpus Out of the way Infrastructure Development Fund(RIDF). RBI has also taken steps in recent times to strengthen institutional mechanisms such as recapitalisation of Regional Country Banks (RRBs) and putting together of local area banks(LABs). Micro-Finance Micro-finance is often a novel approach to "banking with poor"as they attempt to combine lower transaction costs and high quantity repayments. The major thrust of such micro-finance initiatives is with the setting up of聽 Own Help Groups (SHGs), Non-Governmental organizations(NGOs), Credit history Unions etc. Kisan (Farmers') Credit Card account Another notable development in recent times is the introduction regarding Kisan Credit Cards(KCC) within 1998-99. The purpose on the Kisan Credit Cards(KCC) scheme could be to facilities short term credit score to farmers. The scheme has gained popularity as well as implementation has been taken up by 27 commercial loan providers, 187 RRBs and 334 Main cooperative banks. Agricultural Insurance As Agricultural is highly vulnerable to risks such as drought, overflow, pests etc. It is necessary to protect the maqui berry farmers from natural calamities as well as ensure their credit eligibility within the next season. Towards this particular purpose, the Government of India introduced an extensive crop insurance scheme throught the country in 1985 covering main cereal crops, oilseeds along with pulses. Among commercial crops, seven crops viz., sugarcane potato, cotton, ginger, onion, turmeric along with chillies are presently insured. MARKETING OF MUTUAL MONEY UNITS - RRBS 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 Which has a view to expanding the particular scope of business of RRBs and considering that marketing of Mutual Fund (MF) units provides a profitable avenue for loan companies, it has been chose by RBI on 17th May 2006 permitting Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) to try marketing of units in Mutual Funds, as brokers. Accordingly, RRBs may, with approval with their Board of Directors, enter into agreements by using Mutual Funds for marketing their units subject to the following fine print: The bank should only behave as an agent of 100 % free, forwarding applications of the investors for purchase / sale of MF units to the Mutual Fund / Registrar Switch Agents. The purchase of MF units must be at the risk of customers and without worrying about bank guaranteeing any confident return. The bank shouldn't acquire such units of Mutual Fund from the secondary market. The bank shouldn't buy back units of Mutual Funds from their customers. The bank holding legal care of MF units with respect to their customers should ensure that its own investment and investments owned by their customers are kept distinct from 1. Retailing of units of Mutual Funds could possibly be confined to some select branches of the bank to ensure improved control. The bank should adhere to the extant KYC/ AML guidelines in respect of the applicants. The RRBs should applied adequate and effective regulate mechanisms in consultation using their sponsor banks. CONCLUSION 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 RRBs' performance in respect of some important indicators was certainly much better than that of commercial banks or even cooperatives. RRBs have also performed better regarding providing loans to small to medium sized and retail traders as well as petty non-farm rural routines. In recent years, they have got taken a leading factor in financing Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and other micro-credit institutions and linking such groups while using the formal credit sector. 聽RRBs should certainly be strengthened and provided with more resources with which they can undertake more these important activities. And most certainly they should be kept apart from a good profit-oriented corporate motivation which could reduce their capacity to make much needed financial services towards rural areas, including in order to agriculture. Ideally, the best utilization of the resources raised by means of RRBs through deposits would be through extensive cross-subsidisation. This specific, in turn, really requires an apex body that might cover and oversee all of the RRBs, something like a good National Rural Bank connected with India (NRBI). 聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 The quantity of rural branches should be increased rather than reduced; they should be encouraged in order to develop more sophisticated methods of credit delivery in order to satisfy the changing needs in farming; and most off, there should be more coordination between district setting up authorities, panchayati raj institutions plus the banks operating in out of the way areas. Only then will the RRBs fulfill the promise that is so needed for rural development. REFERENCES Bagchi, Amiya Kumar (2004), 鈥淩ural Credit history and Systemic Risk鈥? throughout Ramachandran and Swaminathan (forthcoming 2004) C. P. Chandrasekhar, C. S., and Ray, Sujit Kumar (2004), 鈥淔inancial Sector Reform plus the Transformation of Banking鈥? throughout Ramachandran and Swaminathan (forthcoming 2004) Chandrasekhar, H. P. and J. Ghosh, 2002. The market industry that Failed, A Decade of Neoliberal Economic Reforms through India. New Delhi: Leftword Textbooks. Chavan, P and R. Ramakumar, 2002, 鈥淢icro-credit along with Rural Poverty: Analysis associated with Empirical Evidence鈥? Economic as well as Political Weekly, 37, 10, pp 955-965. Chavan, Pallavi (2004), 鈥淏anking Sector Liberalization plus the Growth and Regional Division of Rural Banking 鈥? throughout Ramachandran and Swaminathan (forthcoming 2004) Chavan, Pallavi along with Ramakumar, R. (2004), 鈥淚nterest Charges on Micro-credit 鈥? throughout Ramachandran and Swaminathan (forthcoming 2004) Dhanagare, Deborah. N., 1990. 鈥楪reen Wave and Social Inequalities鈥? Throughout Poverty and Income Submitter, ed K. S. Krishnaswamy, 266-288. Bombay: Oxford University or college Press for Sameeksha Confidence. Dreze, J., 1990. 鈥楶overty in India plus the IRDP Delusion鈥? Economic as well as Political Weekly, 25 (39): A95-A104. Govt of India (GOI), 1993. Fiscal Reforms, Two Years After and also the Tasks Ahead, New Delhi: Ministry involving Finance, Department of Economic Affairs, Discussion Paper. Govt of India, Labour Bureau (2004), Rural Labour Enquiry Report on 聽聽聽 General Elements of Rural Labour Loved ones, 55th Round of NSS, 1999-聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽聽 2000 (www. ADD) Content By P. Devika Mphil Scholar Karpagam university. E-mail: sabaridevika@gmail. com <! --INFOLINKS_OFF-->.
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